1 edition of Mechanisms of Ionic Polymerization found in the catalog.
|Statement||by B.L. Erusalimskii|
|Series||Macromolecular Compounds, Macromolecular compounds|
|The Physical Object|
|Format||[electronic resource] :|
|Pagination||1 online resource (316 pages).|
|Number of Pages||316|
Kubisa, and K. Ziegler and G. Free-radical polymerization is the most versatile type of chain-growth polymerization. Dekker, New York,pp. Benjamin, Inc.
Less reactive monomers such as styrene require powerful nucleophiles such as butyl lithium. There is a separate monomer phase in intervals I. This is important even when the alkene is symmetrical because, although the adduct will then have the same structural formula regardless of mechanism, the stereochemical configurations may differ. Gaynor ACS Symp.
For a nonionic surfactant, micelles formed only at temperatures below the cloud point. Matyjaszewski, J. Summary Anionic Living Polymerization is only used on an industrial scale if the monomer in question does not polymerize by free-radical mechanism or when polymers with regular structure are required. Loosely-coordinated and solvated ion pairs promote more reactive, fast-polymerizing chains, unencumbered by their counterions.
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Initiation occurs on the surface of the metal, with the reversible transfer of an electron to the adsorbed monomer.
Why does the radical addition occur readily with hydrogen bromide but rarely with the other hydrogen halides? This leads to virtually monodisperse polymer products, which have Mechanisms of Ionic Polymerization book applications in material analysis and product design.
Emulsion polymerization intervals. Water-soluble initiators enter into the micelle where free radical propagation start.
Koshravi, Y. In both anionic and cationic polymerization, each charged chain end negative and positive, respectively is matched by a counterion of opposite charge that originates from the initiator. Advincula, et al. The ionic addition of hydrogen bromide was discussed in Section and will not be considered further at this point.
Summary Anionic Living Polymerization Mechanisms of Ionic Polymerization book only used on an industrial scale if the monomer in question does not polymerize by free-radical mechanism or when polymers with regular structure are required.
References The early literature concerning the addition of hydrogen bromide to unsymmetrical alkenes at best is confused. Summary Cationic Polymerization is a type of chain growth polymerization in which a cationic initiator transfers a proton to a monomer which then becomes reactive.
Termination can occur by loss of a proton. Systems of emulsion polymerization involve 1 conventional emulsion polymerization, in which a hydrophobic monomer emulsified in water and polymerization initiated with a water-soluble initiator [ 5 ]. Because of the charge stability necessary in ionic polymerization, monomers which may be polymerized by this method are few compared to those available for free radical polymerization.
While radical polymerization rate is governed nearly exclusively by monomer chemistry and radical stability, successful ionic polymerization is as strongly related to reaction conditions.
It is easy for the interested reader to find sources for in-depth study, for a superficial acquaintance with the fundamentals of the subject or with the general features of these processes.
Under nearly anhydrous conditions a very long chain polymer called polyisobutylene is formed. ISSN: These initiators initiates emulsion polymerization without the need of stabilizers. Beers, S. Note 2: The ions may also be present in the form of higher aggregates that usually are less reactive than non-aggregated species.
Initiation and propagation are strongly affected by the reaction temperature.
Mechanisms of Ionic Polymerization book are many reagents that add to alkenes only by radical-chain mechanisms. Sometimes the same alkene was reported to give addition both according to, and in opposition to, the principles discussed for electrophilic ionic addition Section Emulsion polymerization is a polymerization process with different applications on the industrial and academic scale.
It involves application of emulsifier to emulsify hydrophobic polymers through aqueous phase by amphipathic emulsifier, then generation of free radicals with either a water or oil soluble initiators.
It characterized by reduction of bimolecular termination of free radicals due Author: Abdelaziz Nasr Moawed Bakr El-hoshoudy. Throughout, the authors offer perceptive insights into the basic concepts of polymerization chemistry and polymerization reaction mechanisms.
The book begins with a review of ionic and radical polymerizations, the development of ionic polymerization, living and dormant polymers, and polymerizability.
Oct 17, · Volume I is concerned with the fundamentals of chemical structure and principles of synthesis of macromolecules: constitution, configuration, conformation, polymerization equilibria, polymerization mechanisms (ionic, coordination, free-radical, step reactions, including solid-state and biochemical polymerizations), polymer reactions, and.This book explains the following topics: Polymers and the Environment, Emulsion Polymerization, Pdf Science Approach to Physico-Chemical Characterization and Processing of Pulse Seeds, Polymer Characterization with the Atomic Force Microscope, Nonconventional Method of Polymer Patterning, The Properties and Application of Carbon.Thus polymerization of propene gives a long-chain hydrocarbon with recurring units: Table Alkene Monomers and Their Polymers.
Most technically important polymerizations of alkenes occur by chain mechanisms and may be classed as anion, cation, or radical reactions, depending upon the character of the chain-carrying species.Mechanisms of Ionic Polymerization | In ebook last twenty years the literature on the processes of ionic polymerization has reached such a level that there is not a single question which is not covered by the information contained in the many monographs, reference books, and textbooks in this field.